• Mon. Jul 22nd, 2024


Jun 17, 2024


By Ewere Okonta

In the face of escalating insecurity plaguing Nigeria, a desperate populace has found itself at a crossroads, grappling with the failure of traditional security apparatuses to safeguard lives and property. Criminal gangs, herdsman attacks, banditry, kidnapping for ransom, and armed robbery have become rampant, leaving citizens feeling helpless, hopeless, and vulnerable to incessant assaults.

The once-respected custodians of security, such as the Nigerian Police Force and the Department of State Services, seem overwhelmed, if not altogether absent. The Nigeria Army, entrusted with safeguarding territorial integrity, finds itself stretched thin by the multifaceted challenges of internal security.

For the benefit of hindsight, let us x-ray the duties of the various security agencies and their performances in the light of the insecurity challenges facing the nation:

*Duties of the Nigerian Police Force*

The Nigerian Police Force (NPF) is primarily responsible for maintaining law and order within the country. Their key duties include:

Crime Prevention and Investigation: Preventing crime, investigating criminal activities, and apprehending offenders.

Protection of Life and Property: Safeguarding lives and property of citizens.

Law Enforcement:

Enforcing laws and regulations, ensuring that citizens adhere to the rule of law.

Public Order Maintenance: Managing public events, protests, and gatherings to ensure they remain peaceful.

Traffic Management: Regulating and controlling traffic to prevent accidents and ensure smooth movement of vehicles and pedestrians.

Community Policing: Engaging with local communities to foster trust and collaboration in addressing local security issues.

*Duties of the Department of State Security Services (DSS)*

The DSS, also known as the State Security Service (SSS), is Nigeria’s primary domestic intelligence agency. Their duties include:

Counter-Intelligence: Protecting Nigeria from internal threats by gathering intelligence on espionage, subversion, and sabotage.

Counter-Terrorism: Preventing and responding to terrorist activities within the country.

Protection of Senior Government Officials: Providing security for key government officials and visiting dignitaries.

Internal Security: Ensuring the internal security of Nigeria, including the protection of critical national infrastructure.

Surveillance and Investigations: Conducting surveillance and investigations into activities that pose a threat to national security.

Advisory Role: Advising the government on security matters and developing strategies to mitigate security threats.

*Duties of the Nigerian Army*

The Nigerian Army is primarily responsible for defending the nation against external threats and ensuring territorial integrity. Their duties include:

National Defense: Defending Nigeria against external aggression and maintaining the country’s territorial integrity.

Internal Security Operations: Assisting in maintaining internal security, particularly during large-scale disturbances or threats that exceed the capacity of the police.

Counter-Insurgency: Engaging in operations to combat insurgencies, notably against groups like Boko Haram in the northeastern part of Nigeria.

Disaster Response: Providing aid and relief during natural disasters and emergencies.

Support Civil Authorities: Assisting civil authorities in maintaining law and order during significant crises.

Peacekeeping Missions: Participating in international peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations and regional bodies like the African Union.

*Performance in Light of Insecurity Challenges*

*Nigerian Police Force*

Challenges: The NPF has been criticized for issues such as inadequate training, corruption, poor working conditions, lack of resources, and instances of human rights abuses. These problems have hindered their ability to effectively combat crime and maintain public order.

Reforms and Efforts: There have been efforts to reform the police force, including improving training, increasing funding, and implementing community policing initiatives. However, progress has been slow, and significant improvements are still needed to address the complex security challenges.

*Department of State Security Services*

Effectiveness: The DSS has had some success in preventing terrorist attacks and managing internal security threats. They have been involved in thwarting plots and arresting key figures in terrorist networks.

Challenges: Despite these successes, the DSS faces challenges such as political interference, limited resources, and issues of transparency and accountability. The agency’s secretive nature sometimes leads to public mistrust.

*Nigerian Army*

Counter-Insurgency: The Nigerian Army has been heavily involved in combating Boko Haram and other insurgent groups. While they have made significant strides in reclaiming territory and weakening insurgents, the conflict remains ongoing, and insurgents still pose a significant threat.

Internal Security: The Army’s involvement in internal security has been necessary due to the scale of threats, but it has also led to concerns about the militarization of civil spaces and human rights violations.

Capacity and Morale: The Army faces issues related to funding, equipment, and the welfare of soldiers. These factors affect their overall capacity and morale, impacting their effectiveness in prolonged operations.

While the Nigerian Police Force, DSS, and Nigerian Army have made efforts to address the country’s security challenges, they are hindered by various systemic issues. Improving coordination among these agencies, addressing corruption, ensuring adequate funding and resources, and implementing comprehensive reforms are essential steps towards enhancing their effectiveness in ensuring national security.

Faced with this dire reality, communities across the nation have turned to self-preservation, birthing a proliferation of vigilante groups. Initially borne out of necessity and noble intentions, these groups sought to fill the void left by a faltering state apparatus. Equipped with little more than determination and local knowledge, they embarked on the mission to secure their neighborhoods.

They set and assumed the following functions:

*Duties of Vigilante Groups*

Vigilante groups in Nigeria often emerge as community-based organizations to address local security challenges where formal law enforcement is inadequate. Their key duties typically include:

Community Policing: Maintaining peace and order within their communities by patrolling neighborhoods and monitoring suspicious activities.

Crime Prevention: Acting as a deterrent to crime by maintaining a visible presence and intervening in minor criminal activities.

Assistance to Law Enforcement: Providing local knowledge and support to the police and other security agencies in their operations.

Conflict Resolution: Mediating local disputes and preventing them from escalating into more significant issues.

Intelligence Gathering: Collecting and providing information on criminal activities and security threats to the formal security agencies.

*Enhancing the Relevance of Vigilante Groups*

To make vigilante groups more relevant in the security management of Nigeria, several steps can be taken:

Formal Recognition and Regulation: Establish a legal framework to officially recognize and regulate vigilante groups, ensuring they operate within the law.

Training and Capacity Building: Provide regular training on security management, human rights, conflict resolution, and community policing.

Resource Allocation: Equip vigilante groups with necessary resources such as communication tools, uniforms, and basic non-lethal equipment.

Integration with Formal Security Agencies: Develop clear protocols for collaboration and communication between vigilante groups and formal security agencies.

Community Engagement: Encourage community involvement and support for vigilante activities, ensuring their actions reflect the community’s needs and concerns.

However, what began as a grassroots response to insecurity has morphed into a double-edged sword. Criminal elements, recognizing the power vacuum, infiltrate these vigilante groups, turning them from protectors to perpetrators. The allure of easy power and profit leads some youths astray, transforming them into self-styled “warlords” who command their own factions within communities.

The unchecked growth of these vigilante groups poses a grave threat to the fabric of society. What was once a beacon of hope now simmers as a time bomb, waiting for a spark to ignite catastrophe. The government, it seems, has abdicated its primary responsibility of ensuring the safety of its citizens, leaving them at the mercy of non-state actors.

To defuse this ticking time bomb, urgent action is imperative. The government must reclaim its role as the guarantor of security, reasserting control over vigilante groups while providing them with necessary support and oversight. Stringent regulations and thorough vetting processes are essential to weed out criminal elements that have infiltrated these groups.

*Streamlining Vigilante Operations*

To streamline the operations of vigilante groups and prevent their proliferation, the following steps are necessary:

Legal Framework: Enact laws that clearly define the scope, roles, and responsibilities of vigilante groups, ensuring they operate under government oversight.

Registration and Licensing: Implement a mandatory registration and licensing system for all vigilante groups, requiring periodic renewals and background checks.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs): Develop SOPs for vigilante operations, including guidelines on conduct, use of force, and engagement with the public.


Monitoring and Evaluation: Establish a government body to monitor and evaluate vigilante activities, ensuring compliance with regulations and addressing any misconduct.

Public Awareness Campaigns: Educate the public about the role of vigilante groups and the importance of reporting any abuses or illegal activities.

Incorporating Feedback Mechanisms: Create channels for community feedback and complaints regarding vigilante activities, ensuring accountability and responsiveness.

By taking these steps, vigilante groups can be effectively integrated into the broader security architecture, enhancing their contributions to national security while mitigating risks associated with their operations.

Moreover, investment in training, equipment, and remuneration for vigilante members is crucial to professionalize their ranks and align their objectives with those of law enforcement agencies. Efforts to integrate vigilante groups into the formal security apparatus should be pursued, facilitating collaboration and information sharing to enhance overall effectiveness.

*Collaboration with Other Security Agencies*

For vigilante groups to collaborate effectively with other security agencies, the following measures are essential:

Communication Channels: Establish dedicated communication channels between vigilante groups and the police, DSS, and military for efficient information sharing.

Joint Operations: Conduct joint patrols and operations to build trust and improve coordination in tackling security threats.

Information Sharing: Create a secure platform for sharing intelligence and reports on criminal activities and security threats.

Regular Meetings: Organize regular meetings and workshops to discuss security issues, share best practices, and coordinate strategies.

Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs): Develop MoUs outlining the roles, responsibilities, and procedures for collaboration between vigilante groups and formal security agencies.

Crucially, vigilante groups must operate within the confines of the law, refraining from vigilantism and respecting the rights of innocent citizens. Clear delineation of their roles and responsibilities is necessary to prevent overreach and ensure harmonious coexistence with law enforcement agencies.

In confronting the specter of vigilantism, the Nigerian government must act decisively and swiftly. Failure to do so risks plunging the nation into further chaos and instability. As the saying goes, a stitch in time saves nine. It is time to act before the time bomb explodes, shattering the fragile peace and security of Nigeria.